History 110 Colonial History to 1800 Research Paper
***You must answer one of the following two Document-Based Questions in five-six paragraphs. Each essay must include appropriate specific examples to support your key points. Even if it is not stated in the question, you must consider the social/cultural, political, and/or economic influence in each body paragraph.
Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of Documents A-H and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. You must cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period.
1. How and why did changing British policies towards the colonies trigger increased colonial unity following the French and Indian War?
Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1754-1776 to construct your essay.
Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of Documents A-H and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. Your essays must cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period.
How and why did the divergent post-Revolutionary ideologies about the government’s role lead from the Articles of Confederation to the conclusive Constitution of 1789?
Use the documents and your knowledge of the period to construct your essay.
***You must answer one of the following essay questions for five-six paragraphs. Each essay must include appropriate specific examples to support your key points. Even if it is not stated in the question, you must consider the social/cultural, political, and/or economic influence in each body paragraph.
Why did the British government institute the Stamp Act? How did the colonists act? Who were the leaders of the colonial response? Why did “respectable gentlemen” decide that they had to “keep an explosive situation from getting out of hand”?
During the two decades from 1754 to 1775, the American colonies moved from division to unity. Explain why that change occurred by comparing the accomplishments of the Albany Congress, the Stamp Act Congress, and the First Continental Congress.
While the American government experienced a great deal of frustration under the Articles of Confederation, what policies and/or programs did it create that proved successful? How did they influence the development of the United States?
Compare the Federalist and Anti-federalist positions on the ratification of the Constitution. Why did the Federalist position win?
Analyze the causes and results of the Whiskey Rebellion. Why was the rebellion significant? What did it reveal about Washington’s view of insurrections? How did the government handle it?
Examine the development of political parties in the United States during the 1790s. What were the causes and issues? What were the political philosophies of the Federalists and the Republicans?
What were the four laws that are generally called the Alien and Sedition Acts? Why were they passed, and what were their provisions? What was the reaction to them?
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=297357&fulltext=&nav=adv” \t “_blank” Franklin’s “Join or Die” Flag, 1754 (from ABC Clio American History collection
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Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=253877&fulltext=&nav=adv” \t “_blank” Albany Congress 1754 (from ABC Clio American History collection
…That the said general government be administered by a President-General, to be appointed and supported by the crown; and a Grand Council, to be chosen by the representatives of the people of the several Colonies met in their respective assemblies…
9. That the President-General, with the advice of the Grand Council, hold or direct all Indian treaties, in which the general interest of the Colonies may be concerned; and make peace or declare war with Indian nations.
10. That they make all purchases from Indians, for the crown, of lands not now within the bounds of particular Colonies, or that shall not be within their bounds when some of them are reduced to more convenient dimensions.
11. That they make new settlements on such purchases, by granting lands in the King’s name, reserving a quitrent to the crown for the use of the general treasury.
12. That they make laws for regulating and governing such new settlements, till the crown shall think fit to form them into particular governments.
13. That they raise and pay soldiers and build forts for the defense of any of the Colonies, and equip vessels of force to guard the coasts and protect the trade on the ocean, lakes, or great rivers; but they shall not impress men in any Colony, without the consent of the Legislature.
14. That for these purposes they have power to make laws, and lay and levy such general duties, imposts, or taxes, as to them shall appear most equal and just (considering the ability and other circumstances of the inhabitants in the several Colonies), and such as may be collected with the least inconvenience to the people; rather discouraging luxury, than loading industry with unnecessary burdens.
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=255115&fulltext=&nav=adv” \t “_blank” Stamp Act Congress Resolves, 1765 (from ABC Clio American History collection)
The members of this Congress, sincerely devoted, with the warmest sentiments of affection and duty to His Majesty’s Person and Government, inviolably attached to the present happy establishment of the Protestant succession, and with minds deeply impressed by a sense of the present and impending misfortunes of the British colonies on this continent; having considered as maturely as time will permit the circumstances of the said colonies, esteem it our indispensable duty to make the following declarations of our humble opinion, respecting the most essential rights and liberties Of the colonists, and of the grievances under which they labour, by reason of several late Acts of Parliament…
III. That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the undoubted right of Englishmen, that no taxes be imposed on them, but with their own consent, given personally, or by their representatives.
IV. That the people of these colonies are not, and from their local circumstances cannot be, represented in the House of Commons in Great-Britain…
VIII. That the late Act of Parliament, entitled, An Act for granting and applying certain Stamp Duties, and other Duties, in the British colonies and plantations in America, etc., by imposing taxes on the inhabitants of these colonies, and the said Act, and several other Acts, by extending the jurisdiction of the courts of Admiralty beyond its ancient limits, have a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the colonists.
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=298708&fulltext=&nav=adv” \t “_blank” Dickenson’s Letter from a Pennsylvania Farmer, 1767 (from ABC Clio American History collection)
Here we may observe an authority expressly claimed and exerted to impose duties on these colonies; not for the regulation of trade; not for the preservation or promotion of a mutually beneficial intercourse between the several constituent parts of the Empire, heretofore the sole objects of parliamentary institutions; but for the single purpose of levying money upon us.
This I call an innovation; and a most dangerous innovation. It may perhaps be objected that Great Britain has a right to lay what duties she pleases upon her exports, and it makes no difference to us whether they are paid here or there. To this I answer: these colonies require many things for their use, which the laws of Great Britain prohibit them from getting anywhere but from her. Such are paper and glass. That we may legally be bound to pay any general duties on these commodities relative to the regulation of trade, is granted; but we being obliged by the laws to take from Great Britain any special duties imposed on their exportation to us only, with intention to raise a revenue from us only, are as much taxes upon us as those imposed by the Stamp Act.
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=289505&fulltext=&nav=adv” \t “_blank” Gaspee Incident, 1772 (from ABC Clio American History collection)
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Source: HYPERLINK “http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/amrev/rebelln/proceed.html” “Proceedings of the Committees of Correspondence, July 19th, 1774.” Library of Congress.
altho’ the said Resolves cannot with Certainty be said to correspond with the Sentiments of the major Part of the Citizens, tho’ in all Probability they do, yet, as they contain our Sentiments, it is further ordered, that they be immediately published as such; leaving those who may dissent from us, to declare their Opinions in such other Phrases or Modes of Expression, as they shall think proper.
…Second. RESOLVED, That all Acts of the British Parliament imposing Taxes on the Colonies, are unjust and unconstitutional, and particularly that the Act for blocking up the Port of Boston is, in the highest Degree arbitrary in its Principles, oppressive in its Operation, unparalleled in its Rigor, indefinite in its Exactions, and subversive of every Idea of British Liberty; and therefore justly to be abhorred and detested by all good Men.
Third. RESOLVED, That the Destruction of the Tea at Boston was not the only Motive for bringing such unexampled Distress on that People, because the alternative of suffering is, or paying for the Tea had otherwise been left in their Option; but we truly lament that the enforcing the Right of Taxation over the Colonies seems to have been the main Design of the said Act of Parliament
…Eighth. RESOLVED, That if a Non-Importation Agreement of Goods from Great-Britain should be adopted by the Congress, it ought to be very general and faithfully adhered to; and that a Non-Importation partially observed, like the last, would answer no good Purpose; but on the contrary, only serve to expose all the Colonies to further Injuries.
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=254827&fulltext=&nav=adv” \t “_blank” Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776 (from ABC Clio American History collection)
I challenge the warmest advocate for reconciliation, to show, a single advantage that this continent can reap, by being connected with Great Britain. I repeat the challenge, not a single advantage is derived. Our corn will fetch its price in any market in Europe, and our imported goods must be paid for buy them where we will.
But the injuries and disadvantages we sustain by that connection, are without number; and our duty to mankind I at large, as well as to ourselves, instruct us to renounce the alliance: Because, any submission to, or dependence on Great Britain, tends directly to involve this continent in European wars and quarrels; and sets us at variance with nations, who would otherwise seek our friendship, and against whom, we have neither anger nor complaint As Europe is our market for trade, we ought to form no partial connection with any part of it. It is the true interest of America to steer clear of European contentions, which she never can do, while by her dependence on Britain, she is made the make-weight in the scale of British politics.
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=254139&fulltext=&nav=adv” \t “_blank” Declaration of Independence, 1776 (from ABC Clio American History collection)
…That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity that constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=253915&fulltext=&nav=adv&specialtopicid=-1” \t “_blank” Articles of Confederation 1781 (ABC Clio American History)
Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.
The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=253897&fulltext=&nav=adv&specialtopicid=-1” \t “_blank” Annapolis Convention 1786 (ABC Clio American History)
In this persuasion, your Commissioners submit an opinion, that the Idea of extending the powers of their Deputies, to other objects, than those of Commerce, which has been adopted by the State of New Jersey, was an improvement on the original plan, and will deserve to be incorporated into that of a future Convention; they are the more naturally led to this conclusion, as in the course of their reflections on the subject, they have been induced to think, that the power of regulating trade is of such comprehensive extent, and will enter so far into the general System of the federal government, that to give it efficacy, and to obviate questions and doubts concerning its precise nature and limits, may require a correspondent adjustment of other parts of the Federal System.
That there are important defects in the system of the Federal Government is acknowledged by the Acts of all those States, which have concurred in the present Meeting; That the defects, upon a closer examination, may be found greater and more numerous, than even these acts imply, is at least so far probably, from the embarrassments which characterize the present State of our national affairs, foreign and domestic, as may reasonably be supposed to merit a deliberate and candid discussion, in some mode, which will unite the Sentiments and Councils of all the States. In the choice of the mode, your Commissioners are of opinion, that a Convention of Deputies from the different States, for the special and sole purpose of entering into this investigation, and digesting a plan for supplying such defects as may be discovered to exist, will be entitled to a preference from considerations, which will occur without being particularized.
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=253898&fulltext=&nav=adv&specialtopicid=-1” \t “_blank” Anonymous Anti-Federalist Letter 1787 (ABC Clio American History)
In answer to the second argument, I deny that we are in immediate danger of anarchy and commotions. Nothing but the passions of wicked and ambitious men will put us in the least danger on this head. Those who are anxious to precipitate a measure will always tell us that the present is the critical moment; now is the time, the crisis is arrived, and the present minute must be seized. Tyrants have always made use of this plea; and nothing in our circumstances can justify it….
Individuals are just recovering from the losses and embarrassments sustained by the late war. Industry and frugality are taking their station and banishing from the community idleness and prodigality. Individuals are lessening their private debts, and several millions of the public debt is discharged by the sale of Western territory….
If any tumults arise, they will be justly chargeable on those artful and ambitious men who are determined to cram this government down the throats of the people before they have time deliberately to examine it.
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=255233&fulltext=&nav=adv&specialtopicid=-1” \t “_blank” The Virginia Plan, 1787 (ABC Clio American History)
The National Legislature ought to be empowered to enjoy the Legislative Rights vested in Congress by the Confederation and moreover to legislate in all cases to which the separate States are incompetent… a National Executive… besides a general authority to execute the National laws… ought to enjoy the Executive rights vested in Congress by the Confederation. Resolved that the Executive and a convenient number of the national Judiciary, ought to compose a Council of revision with authority to examine every act of the National Legislature before it shall operate… National Judiciary be established to consist of one or more supreme tribunals, and of inferior tribunals to be chosen by the National Legislature
Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/Display.aspx?categoryid=4&entryid=293256&searchtext=&type=advanced&option=” Constitution signing at the Constitutional Convention
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Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=254503&fulltext=&nav=adv&specialtopicid=-1” \t “_blank” Thomas Jefferson, Need for a Little Rebellion Now and then Letter, 1787 (ABC Clio American History)
It is a government of wolves over sheep. It is a problem, not clear in my mind, that the first condition is not the best… I hold it that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical. Unsuccessful rebellions, indeed, generally establish the encroachments on the rights of the people which have produced them. An observation of this truth should render honest republican governors so mild in their punishment of rebellions as not to discourage them too much. It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government.
Source: Source: HYPERLINK “http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/search/display.aspx?entryid=254374&fulltext=&nav=adv&specialtopicid=-1” \t “_blank” Hamilton’s Report on the National Bank, 1791 (ABC Clio American History)
To deny that the government of the United States has sovereign power, as to its declared purposes and trusts, because its power does not extend to all cases would be equally to deny that the State governments have sovereign power in any case, because their power does not extend to every case… This general and indisputable principle puts at once an end to the abstract question, whether the United States have power to erect a corporation; that is to say, to give a legal or artificial capacity to one or more persons, distinct from the natural. For it is unquestionably incident to sovereign power to erect corporations, and consequently to that of the United States, in relation to the objects entrusted to the management of the government. The difference is this: where the authority of the government is general, it can create corporations in ad cases, where it is confined to certain branches of legislation, it can create corporations only in those cases.
Source: Source: HYPERLINK “http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/bdsdcc:@field(DOCID+@lit(bdsdccc0801))” The United States Constitution
Representatives and direct taxes shall be appointed among the several States which may be included within this Union… Sect. 8. The Congress shall have power To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties; imposts and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United States…
History 110 Colonial History to 1800 Research Paper