CNM USA and China Are the Greatest World Powers Discussion Responses

Please read the articles down below and make your won respond for each article. Number the articles For example: article 1: I agree with you…… No resources needed 100 words needed for each article The question is: Briefly discuss the cultural differences/similarities between USA and a country in Exhibit 4.7 (except France and Japan), in term of IDV, PDI, and UAI. What are the implications of these differences/similarities for marketers? Article 1: I chose to compare the USA with China because they are the two biggest world powers even though they have different cultural approaches. First of all, in terms of VDI, generally speaking, China appreciates collectivity and Americans appreciate individualism. If you win a competition in China, for example, success belongs more to the team, the family, or society. Fame is sharing. At the PDI level, the hierarchical distance is very strong between employees and the top management of a company in China, whereas the barrier is more limited in the United States. Thus, in China, employees have no other choice but to follow all instructions from above to the letter under penalty of sanctions (or even violence). They have little right to discuss or give ideas to move the company in the right direction. The opposite is true with the American culture. Finally, at the IAU level, the two countries share more or less the same culture, i.e. a weak control of uncertainty. This requires initiatives in terms of work resources but also in terms of innovation. If the launch of a product is a failure, it is not serious, this error will be used in the future to create a successful product. Thus, through these differences, the marketer must adapt his speech and the messages he wants to convey to succeed in his communication. Indeed, making the same product and/or the same communication in the United States as in China would be doomed to failure. Indeed, they are two mostly opposed cultures, whose products from the other country are not really accepted by the government and consumers (example TikTok). Article 2: The Country that I have selected to compare to the USA, is Australia because I’ve lived in both countries and always wondered why the two have so much similarities in their beliefs. The IDV Score US 91 Australia 90, PDI Score US 40 Australia 36,UAI Score US 46 Australia 51The IDV score shows that that the two nations reflect and “I” mindset and will in general reward and acknowledge singular activity. This is consistently the equivalent for the UAI score, the two nations appear to connect with a mellow degree of uneasiness and stress. this would imply that the two nations have demonstrated that are they are willing to some degree, to face challenge. The Power Distance Index shows that again that the two nations are at the mid-level and are intently level with one another. The two nations don’t hold high progressive estimations of intensity, they likewise don’t accept that high force ought to be qualified for benefits. Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets Chapter 4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives LO1 The importance of culture to an international marketer LO2 The origins of culture LO3 The elements of culture LO4 The impact of cultural borrowing LO5 The strategy of planned change and its consequences 4-2 Culture’s Pervasive Impact ▪ Culture influences every part of our lives ▪ Cultures impact on birth rates • Birthrates have implications for sellers of diapers, toys, schools, and colleges Exhibit 4.1 Birthrates (per 1,000 women) Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators by International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2012. Copyright © 2012 by 4-3 World Bank. Reproduced with permission of World Bank via Copyright Clearance Center. Culture’s Pervasive Impact ▪ Consumption of different types of food influences culture • Chocolate by Swiss, seafood by Japanese preference, beef by British, wines by France and Italy ▪ Even diseases are influenced by culture • stomach cancer in Japan, and lung cancer in Spain 4-4 Three Definitions of Culture Culture is the sum of the “values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to generation” “software of the mind, problem-solving tool” (Hofstede) “An invisible barrier… a completely different way of organizing life, of thinking, and of conceiving the underlying assumptions about the family and the state, the economic system, and even Man himself” (Hall) 4-5 Exhibit 4.4 Origins, Elements, and Consequences of Culture 4-6 Origins of Culture: Geography ▪ Geography, which includes climate, topography, flora, fauna, and microbiology, influences our social institutions ▪ Jared Diamond states that historically innovations spread faster east-to-west than north-to-south ▪ Philip Parker reports strong correlations between the latitude (climate) and the per capita GDP of countries 4-7 Origins of Culture: History ▪ The impact of specific events in history can be seen reflected in technology, social institutions, cultural values, and even consumer behavior ▪ The military conflicts in the Middle East in 2003 bred new cola brands, Mecca Cola, Muslim Up, and Arab Cola For e.g., American trade policy depended on tobacco being the original source of the Virginia colony’s economic survival in the 1600s 4-8 Origins of Culture: The Political Economy ▪ For most of the 20th Century three approaches to governance competed for world dominance: • Fascism • Fascism fell in 1945 • Communism • Communism crumbled in the 1990s • Democracy/free enterprise 4-9 Origins of Culture: Technology ▪ Technological innovations influence cultural values ▪ Jet aircraft, air conditioning, televisions, computers, and the internet have all influenced culture 4-10 Origins of Culture: Social Institutions ▪ Social institutions including family, religion, school, the media, government, and corporations all affect culture ▪ The family, social classes, group behavior, age groups, and how societies define decency and civility are interpreted differently within every culture 4-11 Origins of Culture: Social Institutions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Family behavior varies across the world, e.g., extended families living together to Dad washing dishes Religious value systems differ across the world, e.g., Muslims not allowed to eat pork to Hindus not allowed to consume beef School and education, and literacy rates affect culture and economic growth Media (magazines, TV, the Internet) influences culture and behavior Government policies influence the thinking and behaviors citizens of adult citizens, e.g., the French government offers new “birth bonuses” of $800 given to women as an incentive to increase family size Corporations influence culture via the products they market, e.g., MTV 4-12 Cultural Values ▪ Hofstede, who studied over 90,000 people in 66 countries, found that the cultures differed along four primary dimensions • • • • Individualism/Collective Index (IDV), which focuses on self-orientation Power Distance Index (PDI), which focuses on authority orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), which focuses on risk orientation; and Masculinity/Femininity Index (MAS), which focuses on assertiveness and achievement 4-13 Power Distance Index Individualism/Collectivism Index 1. 2. 3. 4. The Individualism/Collective Index refers to the preference for behavior that promotes one’s self-interest High IDV cultures reflect an “I” mentality and tend to reward and accept individual initiative Low IDV cultures reflect a “we” mentality and generally subjugate the individual to the group Collectivism pertains to societies in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong, cohesive groups, which protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty 1. 2. 3. 4. The Power Distance Index measures power inequality between superiors and subordinates within a social system Cultures with high PDI scores tend to be hierarchical and value power
and social status High PDI cultures the those who hold power are entitled to privileges Cultures with low PDI scores value equality and reflect egalitarian views 4-14 Uncertainty Avoidance Index 1. The Uncertainty Avoidance Index measures the tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity among members of a society 2. High UAI cultures are highly intolerant of ambiguity, experience anxiety and stress, accord a high level of authority to rules as a means of avoiding risk 3. Low UAI cultures are associated with a low level of anxiety and stress, a tolerance of deviance and dissent, and a willingness to take risks 4-15 Exhibit 4.7 Hofstede’s Indexes, Language, and Linguistic Distance Source: Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations 2nd Edition (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001). Reprinted with permission of Geert Hofstede. 4-16 Rituals and Symbols ▪ Rituals are patterns of behavior and interaction that are learned and repeated vary from country to country • e.g., extended lunch hours in Spain and Greece ▪ Language as Symbols: the “languages” of time, space, things, friendships, and agreements ▪ In Canada, language has been the focus of political disputes ▪ Differences in language vocabulary varies widely, even English is different in different countries ▪ Aesthetics as Symbols • the arts, folklore, music, drama, and dance of a culture influences marketing 4-17 Beliefs and Thought Processes ▪ Beliefs, which mainly stem from religious training, vary from culture to culture • The western aversion to the number 13 or refusing to walk under a ladder • Japanese concern about Year of the Fire Horse • The Chinese practice of Feng Shui in designing buildings ▪ Thought processes also vary across cultures • “Asian and Western” thinking • Other examples? 4-18 Cultural Sensitivity and Tolerance ▪Successful foreign marketing begins with cultural sensitivity —being familiar with nuances ▪A new culture can be viewed objectively, evaluated, and appreciated. Cultural Sensitivity Has to Be Cultivated ▪Cultural sensitivity can be developed by acquiring knowledge about a culture including: • Different meanings of colors, and different tastes • General facts about a culture ▪It can also be developed by learning the more in-depth meaning of cultural facts: • The meaning of time, and attitudes toward people • Developing a degree of insight 4-19
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